DATABASE DEVELOPMENT & USE under MANGO PROJECT

## Guidelines for Data Analysis & Information Use

## Arun C. Mehta

Fellow, NIEPA, New Delhi – 110016 (INDIA)

## Background

Under the MANGO Project initiated by ACCU, Japan, a set of Data Capture Formats have been developed to collect information on a variety of non-formal education programmes initiated in one of the pilot districts, namely Indore of Madhya Pradesh in India. Data through these formats have already been collected and the same is ready for analysis and use. If properly utilized, the same will be useful in developing similar programmes in future and monitoring of the existing programmes. The raw data collected is of limited use unless the same is converted into the indicators. Before, a framework for indicators under the MANGO Project is presented, it is necessary to know in detail type of programmes being offered and also the providers. In this regard, information on the following aspects of programmes is crucial:

·

Type of programmes:Detailed list and characteristics of programmes offered at different levels distributed by nature of programme (like ECCE, literacy, out of school children, continuing education etc.), location, outputs, objectives & contents, teaching/learning methods, educators and learners.

·

Providers/Agency:Providers distributed by type of programmes at different levels and by location. The providers may either be government or non-governmental agencies. Non-governmental agencies can further be divided into aided, unaided, voluntary and missionary management; and

·

Providers/Agenciesthat offer programmes for special target/clientele/focus groups by location.

Clientele Age Groups

Perhaps the most crucial information that is required for planning and monitoring of NFE programmes under the MANGO Project is the clientele population. Most of the indicators can be worked out, if the clientele population for which programmes are initiated is known. In the absence of which, it would rather difficult to estimate need, demand, and participation at different levels. Not only the present information is required but future information is also required to enable reliable planning for these programmes.

In view of the type and objectives of the programmes, information on clientele population is required at community (village/habitation), cluster and other levels. In most of the cases, both male and female population is required at all these levels. Following are the known age groups in case of the formal education system:

· 3-5: ECCE programme

· 6-11: Primary education (Classes I to V)

· 11-14: Upper primary education (Classes VI to VIII)

· 6-14: Elementary education (Classes I to VIII)

· Single age-6: Official entry age for Grade I; and

· 15-35: Adult literacy and continuing education programmes.

For ECCE and pre-primary programmes, the corresponding age group is 3-5 year. For programmes concerning elementary education, relevant age group is 6-14 years. For adult literacy and continuing education programmes, corresponding age groups are 15-35 year or 15+ population. But non-formal activities, as mentioned above, do not confine only to these age groups but vary from provider to provider and programme to programme. Many of these programmes are being run by the non-governmental voluntary agencies also. The NFE programmes within the education sector can be grouped under the following four categories:

· Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)

· Literacy (adult illiterates)

· Out-of-School children (including EGS) and youth; and

· Continuing education.

The Present Module & its UsersLargely, the Module is written in view of the requirements at the grassroots level, i.e. CLC level. The CLC Coordinators and other grassroots functionaries would therefore be the basic users of this module on data analysis. It will help the grassroots functionaries in analyzing the information that they collected. This would help them in knowing different aspects of programme in which they are involved. The module will also facilitate as how to convert raw information in the form of indicators. They will also learn using simple statistical tools, such as, rate, ratio, percentage, average and index number all of which have been explained by taking a series of examples from their own programme. In the process, they will able to construct and analyze a set of indicators concerning the programme in which they are involved.

Data Analysis & IndicatorTo ensure full utilization of information collected, a set of core group of indicators needs to be developed so that the programme providers can use them in knowing different aspects of programmes that they offer. Raw data concerning NFE programmes in Indore district has already been collected. Raw data is of the limited use unless the same is analyzed and used in planning and monitoring of programmes. The raw data therefore not only need to be analyzed but refined also so as to convert it into useful information in the form of indicators. This can be done in a variety of ways. First, the concept of an indicator is briefly presented.

An indicator is that which points out or directs attention to something. An indicator should be something giving a broad indication of the state of the situation being investigated. Indicators are compared to a ‘norm’ or a ‘standard’ (like pupil-instructor ratio) or to a previous score. Indicators reflect the way in which an objective can be achieved as well as to what degree approximately the objective has been achieved at any stage. The following are the main characteristics of a good indicator:

· An indicator should provide useful information to the providers

· Its ability to summarize information without distortions

· Its precision and comparability

· Its reliability and frequency of updating

· It allows to relate it with other indicators for global analysis

· It measures how far or how close one is from the objectives

· It helps to identify problematic or unacceptable situation

· It meets policy concerns; and

· It helps to compare its value to a reference value, to a norm/standard or itself, as computed for different periods.

## From Raw Data & Indicators

Raw data needs to be changed first in the derived or indicators form. By using derived data, meaningful conclusions can be drawn about the programmes under implementation and its providers, clientele for which a programme is initiated and other aspects of the programme. By using simple statistical tools such as

Averages, Percentage, Rate and Ratio and Index Numbers, raw data is converted in the indicator form. This has been explained below by taking simple examples:

can be calculated in a variety of ways. This has been explained below by taking examples. Similar to these examples, averages can also be worked out in case of NFE programmes.‘Averages’

Let us suppose that attendance in case of a NFE Centre for six days is given as follows:Example 1:

Day

1

2

3

4

5

6

Attendance

20

22

22

18

21

23

The average attendance is simply work out by adding number of pupils attended NFE Centre on all these days i.e. 20+22+22+18+21+23 = 126, which is then divided by the number of days for which attendance is available i.e. 6.

Average Daily Attendance = 126/6 = 21.

This means that on an average 21 learners attended NFE centers during 6 days for which attendance data is available. While analyzing average attendance, it may be kept in mind that on few days the number of learners attended NFE center may be lower or higher than the average i.e. 21. In the present example, it may be noted that on day 2 and 3, 22 learners attended while on day 6, 23 learners attended the center. On the other hand, on day 4, only 18 learners attended the NFE center. Average attendance of 21 is representative in nature and it is the average attendance of all the days for which attendance data is available.

In view of the nature of the programme, average attendance can be calculated daily, monthly, quarterly, bi-annually or yearly. Let us take another example of calculating average but in a different way.

Age of learners in an NFE center is given along with number of learners of a particular age:Example 2:

Age in Years (X)

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Total

Number of Learners (Y)

4

8

12

50

15

6

5

100

X x Y

40

88

144

650

210

90

80

1302

The task given is to compute the average age of learners in an NFE center. This can be obtained in the following way: First, number of learners of an age is multiplied by that age. This is to be repeated for all the given observations. This has been presented along with the data (X x Y). All these observations are then added, this comes out to be 1,302. This number is then divided by the total number of learners of all ages i.e. 100. Thus the average age of learners in an NFE center comes out to be

1302/100 = 13.02;

this indicates that average age of learners in that NFE center is 13.02 years. As has been indicated from the given data that a few learners are above and below the average i.e. 13.02 years. The average age calculated is representative in nature as it is calculated by using the age data of all the learners.

The average can also be worked out to know the size of an NFE center. This is illustrated below:

Let us suppose that number of NFE centers distributed according to size of NFE centers is given as below:Example 3:

Size of NFE Centre

0-10

10-20

20-30

30-40

40-50

Number of NFE Centres (X)

20

50

70

60

40

Mid-points (Y)

5

15

25

35

45

X x Y

100

750

1750

2100

1800

The task given is to calculate the average size of the NFE centre. This can be worked out by calculating the mid-points in case of each size of NFE centre i.e. 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 etc. Thus, the mid-points obtained would be 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45. These mid-points are then multiplied by the corresponding number of NFE centres. Thus, total of 20x5, 50x15, 70x25, 60x35 and 40x45 will give 6,500, which is then divided by the total number of NFE centres i.e. 240. The average size of NFE centre is obtained by dividing 6,500 to 240 i.e. 27.08. Thus, the average size of an NFE centre comes out to be 27.08. This indicates that on an average there are about 27 learners per centre. Few NFE centres may have below or above the average number of learners. This can be calculated for different types of NFE programmes and also by type of NFE providers.

Based upon the NFE providers and nature of NFE programmes they offer and the clientele for which a programme is initiated, the averages presented above can be worked out and analyzed.

indicates percentage change in the variables over two different periods of time. It shows the growth or decline in a variable. Rate is always computed between two given points of time even though information is available at more than two points of time. Rate can either be computed on simple or compound basis.‘Rate’

For example, number of NFE programmes offered by a provider is available for the years, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004. In order to know the progress made in terms of number of programmes, growth is calculated. Growth is always calculated between two points of time. Growth is either in the absolute or percentage form. For example, the number of programmes offered in 1999 was 208 and that of 2004 is 412. Then, the growth is simply the difference of programmes offered between 1999 and 2004 i.e. 412 – 208 = 204. It reveals that number of programmes offered by a NFE provider is increased by 204 programmes between 1999 and 2004. Growth can either be negative or positive which depends upon the value of the variable at two points of time. Many a times, growth is also calculated to know the percentage change occurred between two points of time. This is known as

Annual Rate of Growth.By taking examples, this has been explained below.

Let us suppose that an NFE programme caters the need of 15-35 year population. The objective is to know at what rate the population in that age group (15-35 year) has increased, this can be known both in the absolute and percentage term. Once the rate at which the population at two previous years is known, the same can also be used in knowing the clientele population in future. The computation of rate at which clientele population is increasing and the use of the same in knowing the clientele in future may be useful for the NFE providers for taking stock of the situation in relation to the objectives of the NFE programmes and also in initiating similar programme in future.

For computing the Annual Rate of Growth (Simple), the following formula can be applied to the information at any two points of time.

(1)

Where

r = annual rate of growth

P

_{n}= population in the current yearP

_{o}= population in the base year; andn = number of intermediary years.

Let population of age group 15-35 year in a village is given as 846 in the year 1991 (P

_{o}), as against 1,027 in the year 2001 (Pn), thendecadal rate of growthwould be,

[1027 – 846]

= x 100

[846]

= 21.39 per cent gives the decadal rate of growth which has taken place between the two given years, 1991 to 2001. The annual rate of growth can be obtained by dividing the decadal rate of growth by ‘n’ (in the present case ‘n’ = 10); thus 2.14 per cent is the annual rate of increase. By assuming that this rate of growth (r = 2.14 per cent) would continue in future, population figures can be obtained in any given year. Thus, in this method, the net increment between two years is obtained by applying ‘r’ to the base year population, which means the increment remains constant irrespective of the year, hence, considered as a crude method of projection.

A slightly improved method is the

compound rate of growth method,which can be computed with the help of the following formula.

R = [(P

_{n}/ P_{o})^{ 1/n}- 1] x 100 (2)

By the formula

P

_{n}= P_{o}(1+R/100)^{n}(3)

population in any requisite year can be projected. The value of the expression can be obtained with the help of a scientific calculator by using the function [Yx] or [X

^{Y}].

R = [(1027/846) (1/10) - 1] x 100

= [(1.2139)0.10 - 1] x 100

= [1.0196 - 1] x 100

= 1.96%.

Thus, during the period 1991 to 2001, population increased at the rate of 1.96 per cent per annum. This rate can now be applied to know the population figures in any given year. For example, population in the year 2011 would be,

P

_{2011 }= P_{2001}x (1 + R/100) n

= 1027 x (1 + .0196)10

= 1027 x 1.2142

= 1247.

shows the relationship between two variables at any particular period of time. Let us suppose that there are 40,240 illiterates of age group 15-35 years and the total population of 15-35 years is 56,920. Then, the ratio is calculated as following:‘Ratio’

40,240

Ratio = = 0.7069;

56,920

this shows that the ratio of illiterates to total population of age group 15-35 years population is 0.71. This indicates that for every 100 persons of 15-35 year population, there are at least 71 illiterates of that age group. Rates and ratios are interchangeable and normally expressed as percentages for easy interpretation. On the other hand percentage is defined as follows:

is the mathematical relationship between two variables multiplied by 100. It is the most commonly used indicator. In the above example, if the ratio 0.71 is multiplied by 100 would give us 71 per cent. This indicates that 71 per cent of 15-35 year population is illiterate. This otherwise also indicates that only 29 per cent population of age group 15-35 year is literate.‘Percentage’

Keeping in view the objectives of an NFE programme, percentage can be worked out. For example, if the focus of an NFE programme is on women, then percentage of female illiterates to total illiterates can be worked out. It would indicate percentage of female illiterates to the total illiterates. To see whether, the objectives of a NFE programme is being realized or not, percentage can also be worked out over a period of time. For example, it will indicate that percentage of female literates to total literates over time is increased or not. Similarly, if calculated for number of illiterates would indicate increase or decline in the female illiterates.

are calculated to review the progress in relation to a particular point of time. Index numbers are presented in the percentage form, which compares changes in a variable at a particular period of time with similar data at some other points of time. With the help of index number, the growth of a NFE programme can be reviewed. This is explained below with the help of an example.‘Index numbers’

An NFE provider is working in the area of adult literacy programme and has a large number of learning centres. The total number of centres run by that provider is available for last 5 years that is presented below:Example:

Year

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Number of NFE Centres

254

365

487

500

612

Index Number

100

143.7

191.7

196.9

240.9

If the objective is to review the growth of NFE centres, it can be known by using the index numbers. Index numbers are always calculated in relation to the base year figure i.e. 254. The number of NFE centres in the subsequent years is divided by the NFE centres in the base year and then it is multiplied by 100. In the first year, the index number calculated would always be 100. In subsequent years, it can be calculated as follows:

Year 2000 = (365/254)*100 = 143.7

Year 2001 = (487/254)*100 = 191.7

Year 2002 = (500/254)*100 = 196.9

Year 2003 = (612/254)*100 = 240.9

This is interpreted as following. In the first year 1999, the index number calculated comes out to 100 and in subsequent years, 143.7, 191.7, 196.9 and 240.9. This means that during 1999 and 2000, the index number has increased from 100 to 143.7; thus meaning increase in number of NFE centres by 1.43 times. Similarly, the number of NFE centres in 2001 compared to centres in the base year 1999, is increased by 1.91 times. In the following years, the increase was 1.97 and 2.41 times compared to NFE centres in the base year, 1999. By following this methodology, index numbers can be computed and used in analyzing the progress made by an NFE programme on its different aspects. For example, if the objective is to analyze the number of NFE learners of a particular age group over a period of time, this can be known by computing index numbers. To know participation of girls in an NFE programme over time can also be analyzed by using the index numbers. Thus, keeping in view the requirements and the nature and objectives of an NFE programme, index numbers can be used.

Core Group of Suggestive Indicators

Based upon the discussions presented above, a core group of suggestive list of indicators for MANGO project is presented below. The indicators are classified under the following broad categories: Demographic & Contextual Indicators, Input Indicators, Process Indicators and Output Indicators. The indicators presented below are suggestive one. In view of the type of an NFE programme, other indicators may be added to it. Keeping in view the nature of NFE programme, the indicators can be computed according to NFE providers, target groups, age group and also according to individual NFE programme. Many of these indicators can also be computed separately for male and female population and also by caste. Keeping in view the level at which an NFE programme is initiated, the indicators can also be worked out at different levels, such as, village, cluster, community, block, district, state and national levels.

DEMOGRAPHIC & CONTEXTUAL INDICATORS

1. Ratio of illiterate population to total population in the age-group 35+ population. If multiply by hundred would produce percentage of 35+ illiterate population to total 35+ population. The indicator can be worked out separately for male and female population and at different levels. The indicator will help in developing or expanding literacy programmes for 35+ population.

[DCF 5]2. Ratio of illiterate population to total population (15-35 years). If multiply by hundred would produce percentage of 15-35 illiterate population to total 15-35 year population. The indicator can be worked out separately for male and female population and at different levels. The indicator will help in developing or expanding literacy programmes for 15-35 year population.

[DCF 5]3. Ratio of literate population to total population (15-35 years). If multiply by hundred would produce percentage of 15-35 literate population to total 15-35 year population. The indicator can be worked out separately for male and female population and at different levels. The indicator will also help in developing or expanding literacy programmes for 15-35 year population.

[DCF 5]4. Ratio of literate population to total population (35 + years). If multiply by hundred would produce percentage of 35+ literate population to total 35+ population. The indicator can be worked out separately for male and female population and at different levels. The indicator will also help in developing or expanding literacy programmes for 35+ population.

[DCF 5]5. Ratio of out of school children in the age-groups 6-11 and 11-14 years. The 6-11 year out of school children is divided by the total 6-11 year population to obtain percentage of 6-11 year out of school children. Similarly, 11-14 year out of school children is divided by the total 11-14 year population to obtain percentage of 11-14 year out of school children. The indicator can be worked out at different levels and also separately in case of boys and girls. The indicator can be used in developing programme for out of school children.

[DCF 5]6. Ratio of primary education completers to total population in the age group 15-35 years. If multiply by hundred will give percentage of 15-35 year population completed primary education. The indicator should be calculated separately for male and female population.

[DCF 5]7. Ratio of primary education completers to total population in the age group 35+ population. If multiply by hundred will give percentage of 35+ population completed primary education. The indicator should be calculated separately for male and female population.

[DCF 5]8. Ratio of post primary education attended persons to total population in 35+ population. If multiply by hundred will give percentage of 35+ population completed post primary education. The indicator should be calculated separately for male and female population.

[DCF 5]

- Ratio of post primary education attended persons to total population in the age group 15-35 year population. If multiply by hundred will give percentage of 15-35 year population completed post primary education. The indicator should be calculated separately for male and female population.
10. Ratio of population in the age-groups 0-2, 3-5, 6-10, 11-14, 15-35 & 35+ year population to total population: If multiply by 100, the indicator will present the share of population in different age group to total population in a year. If calculated, over a period of time will present the trends in percentage share of population in different age groups.

[DCF 5]11. Ratio of children in pre-primary classes to total 3-5 year population: If multiply by 100 will present percentage of 3-5 year population enrolled in pre-primary classes. The indicator is termed as Gross Enrolment Ratio in pre-primary classes and should be calculated separately in case of boys and girls.

[DCF 5 & 6]12. Ratio of children in primary classes to total 6-11 year population: If multiply by 100 will present percentage of 6-11 year population enrolled in primary classes. The indicator is termed as Gross Enrolment Ratio in primary classes and should be calculated separately in case of boys and girls.

[DCF 5 & 6]13. Ratio of completers of basic literacy course to total population. If multiply by hundred will produce percentage of population completed basic literacy course to total population. The indicator should also be calculated separately for age groups 15-35 and 15+ population and also for male and female population. The denominator in these cases will be the total 15-35 year and 15+ population.

[DCF 5]14. Ratio of completers of post literacy course to total population. If multiply by hundred will produce percentage of population completed post basic literacy course to total population. The indicator should also be calculated separately for age groups 15-35 and 15+ population and also for male and female population. The denominator in these cases will be the total 15-35 year and 15+ population.

[DCF 5]

## INPUT INDICATORS

15. Pupil: Teacher Ratio. Total pupils/learners in an NFE programme are divided by the total number of educators/instructors in that programme in the same year to obtain the ratio. The indicator should be calculated for each of the NFE programme and can also work out at CLC and other desired levels.

[DCF 8]16. Percentage of Female Teachers to total teachers. Number of female educators/instructors in an NFE programme is divided by the total educators/instructors in that programme in the same year is multiply by hundred to obtain the indicator. The indicator should be calculated for each of the NFE programme and can also work out at CLC and other desired levels.

[DCF 8]17. Qualification-wise Percentage of NFE educators/instructors. Number of educators/instructors by an educational level in an NFE programme is divided by the total educators/instructors in that programme in the same year is multiply by hundred to obtain the indicator. The indicator may be calculated separately for each of the educational qualification, like middle, secondary, higher secondary etc. The indicator should be calculated for each of the NFE programme and can also work out at CLC and other desired levels.

[DCF 9]18. Ratio of CLCs having own buildings to total CLCs. The number of CLCs having their own building is divided by the total number of CLCs is then multiply by hundred to obtain the percentage. The indicator is important from the point of view of developing non-formal education Programmes on regular basis for not only the young people but for the aged people also and make the centre as the focal point for healthy discussion and attractive place for all. The indicator can be worked out at block and other desired levels.

[DCF 2]19. Ratio of CLCs having potable drinking water to total CLCs. Number of CLCs having potable drinking water facility is divided by total number of CLCs to obtain the indicator. The indicator can be worked out at block and other desired level. The indicator is used in assessing availability and making available drinking water facility to CLCs.

[DCF 4]20. Ratio of trained educators/instructors/facilitators to total facilitators. Number of trained educators/instructors/facilitators in an NFE programme is divided by the total number of educators/instructors/facilitators in that programme in the same year to obtain the indicator. The indicator is useful in knowing training status of instructors and be worked out for each of the NFE programme. It may also be calculated separately in case of male and female instructors and at CLC/ and other desired levels.

[DCF 9]21. Ratio of CLCs having electricity connection to total CLCs. Number of CLCs having electric connection is divided by total number of CLCs to obtain the indicator. The indicator can be worked out at block and other desired levels. The indicator is used in assessing availability and making available electricity connection to CLCs.

[DCF 4]22. Ratio of CLCs having furniture for learners to total CLCs. Number of CLCs having furniture for learners is divided by total number of CLCs to obtain the indicator. The indicator can be worked out at block and other desired levels. The indicator is used in assessing availability and making available furniture for learners to CLCs.

[DCF 3]23. Ratio of CLCs having chairs/tables for educators/instructors/facilitators to total CLCs. Number of CLCs having chairs/tables for educators/instructors/facilitators is divided by total number of CLCs to obtain the indicator. The indicator can be worked out at block and other desired levels. The indicator is used in assessing availability and making available chairs/tables for educators to CLCs.

[DCF 3]24. Ratio of CLCs having computers to total CLCs in block. Number of CLCs having computers is divided by total number of CLCs in that block to obtain the indicator. The indicator is used in assessing availability and making available computers to CLCs.

[DCF 2]

- Ratio of CLCs having library facility in CLC to total CLCs in block. Number of CLCs in a block having library facility is divided by total number of CLCs in that block to obtain the indicator. The indicator is used in assessing availability and making available library facility to CLCs.
[DCF 2]- Ratio of CLCs having reading rooms in CLCs to total CLCs in block. Number of CLCs in a block having reading room is divided by total number of CLCs in that block to obtain the indicator. The indicator is used in assessing availability and making available reading room to CLCs.
[DCF 2]- Percentage of NFE Agencies by organizational affiliation at block and other desired levels. The indicator should be separately computed for each of the organization that offer NFE programmes.
[DCF 1]- Number of NFE Institutions by type of NFE programmes at block/district/state level
[DCF 1 & 7]- Number of programmes by ranges of study hours at block/district/state level
[DCF 1 & 7]- Number of programmes by ranges of fees at block/district/state level
[DCF 1 & 7]- Number of programmes by starting/ending months at block/district/state level
[DCF 1 & 7]- Number of learners enrolled by sex in different CLCs/block/district/state level
[DCF 1 & 7]

## PROCESS INDICATORS

- Ratio of CLCs having TVs/VCR/VCD to total CLCs in the block. Number of CLCs in a block having TVs/VCR/VCD is divided by total number of CLCs in that block to obtain the indicator. The indicator is used in assessing availability and making available TVs/VCR/VCD to CLCs.