MHRD Publications


Education in India (I,S):1992-93 (discontinued to publish backlog)

Government of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Education, Planning, Monitoring and Statistics Division, New Delhi

Publication Date


Education in India is an annual publication of the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development. The publication has three volumes, namely, Volume I(S) & I(C), Volume II(S) and Volume (III). Like, `Selected Educational Statistics, `Education in India# also disseminates state-specific information for all States and UTs. However, the information disseminated through the `Selected Educational Statistics is provisional in nature, while that of the `Education in India is final. The main volume presenting information on school education is available (latest) for the year 1992-93. The detail of the information available is presented under three broad headings, namely, Numeric, Financial and Examination Results.

The numeric information on the number of institutions, enrolment and teachers is disseminated through Volume I which has two parts, namely, Volume I(S) and Volume (C). Volume I(S) provides information on school education. It contains information on number of institutions, teachers and enrolment by type; number of selected educational institutions by management; number of pupils by stages of institutions; stage-wise and sex-wise growth of school enrolment in India; students flow in school classes (I to X) and retention ratio; stage-wise gross enrolment ratio; growth of number of teachers in different types of schools in India and teacher-pupil ratio in school for general education.

The Part II of the publication contains state-wise information on number of selected educational institutions by management; number of educational institutions and their enrolment; number of students receiving general, school, professional, vocational, special and other education; age-specific population and percentage coverage; number of teachers in educational institutions by type and average number of students per teacher; number of trained and untrained teachers by school stage and number of institutions and enrolment in rural areas.

Volume I(C) of Education in India disseminates numeric information on non-affiliated institutions of education. The Part I of the volume presents abstract and the all-India statements whereas state-wise information is presented in Part II. Information covered in Part I is on: number of institutions by type of education; number of pupils in institutions by type of education; number of teachers by type of institutions; total enrolment: collegiate education, faculty-wise/level-wise; and girls enrolment: collegiate education, faculty-wise/level-wise.

State-wise information on variables listed above under Part I is presented in Part II. Broadly, number of educational institutions and enrolment of general (collegiate) and professional education by courses and stages is presented in this volume. Limited information on education in rural areas is also available apart from the number of teachers in educational institutions by type and average number of students per teacher. The state-wise information on universities, colleges and other institutions of higher education and secondary, higher secondary schools, boards, and institutions offering secondary level diploma courses is available in this publication.

Like other Volumes, the Volume II(S) has two parts, namely, General Survey and Statistical Tables. Compared to general surveys presented in other volumes, this volume under study provides detailed information at the all-India level through a set of statistical tables, namely, income by type of educational institutions; income from government funds by type of educational institutions; income by sources for all type of educational institutions; expenditure by type of educational institutions and expenditure on all educational institutions by objects. Since the Volume II(S) is confined to school education, information relating to income and expenditure on education is disseminated on the institutions, namely, boards of intermediate and/or secondary education; intermediate/pre-degree/junior colleges (old pattern); higher secondary schools (10+2 pattern); higher secondary schools (old pattern); high/post basic schools; middle/senior basic schools; primary/junior basic schools; pre-primary/pre-basic schools; schools for vocational/professional, special and other education and directorate and inspectorate.

So far as the sources of income are concerned, data is collected according to the following sources and expenditure on education is further disaggregated by sources and functions. Important sources shown are (i) Central Government; (ii) State Government; (iii) University Grants Commission; (iv) University Funds; (v) Local body Funds; (vi) Fees; and (vii) Endowment and other sources. The major item on which money is spent is classified as follows: (i) Salaries and allowances of teaching and academic staff (ii) Salaries of non-teaching staff; (ii) Hostels; (iii) Libraries; (iv) Stipends, (v) Scholarships and other financial Concessions; (vi) Apparatus Chemical Consumable; and (vi) Store and other items; (vii) Libraries; (viii) Buildings; and (ix) Other items including middle, primary and pre-primary expenditure.

Part II disseminates state-specific information on all variables covered above under Part I. Since Volume II(C) deals with the University and Higher Education, Volume III is divided into two parts, namely, Part I and II. Part I provides information on examination results of the following courses at the all-India level. (i) Post Metric Diploma/Certificate (not leading to degree); (ii) Intermediate/Pre-Degree/Pre-University; (iii) Higher Secondary (New Pattern 10+2); (iv) Higher Secondary (Old Pattern); and Matriculation/Secondary/School Leaving Certificate. State-wise examination results in relation to the courses identified above under Part I is disseminated in Part II.

Research Period

Research Team
Officers and Staff of Statistics and CMIS Unit, Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development

Funding Source
Government of India

Research Geographic Area
All India, State-specific Data

Methodology Design

Collected by the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India as a part of regular collection of annual statistics. The structured Data Capture Formats are used to collect information. Information is collected on school basis and all the recognised institutions are included in the collection.

Data Quality Issues

Time lag is an important limitation of the publication. Different volumes of the publication are available for different years. Data gaps are an another limitation. The unrecognized institutions are not covered in the collection so as the private expenditure on education. Data users often question reliability of data presented in this volume. There has been a difference of 1-2 per cent in case of institutions and 3-4 per cent in enrolment in the provisional and final set of statistics.

Down Load: Software for Education Planning & Management