Indicators Concerning to Access, Enrolment and Retention
with Focus on Upper Primary Education
ARUN C MEHTA
NIEPA, 17-B, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi – 110016
The DPEP has generated
demand for upper primary to expand.
Therefore, it is proposed that it will be expanded to upper primary
level of education. For monitoring the programme, a set of indicators is
required. In the light of this presented below a set of general indicators
concerning to access, enrolment and retention. Needless to mention that the
list presented is not exclusively one and more indicators can be added to it
keeping in view the situation at different levels which will make it local
specific. The list will also be modified once the design of upper primary
education under DPEP phase one districts are finalized. In addition, to monitor
the progress of programme with particular reference to financing, mobilization
and cost effectiveness, Project Monitoring Information System would also need
to be developed. There should be
complete correlation between the EMIS and the PMIS without which neither the
programme will be implemented efficiently nor effective monitoring will take
place. It may also be noted that information on many of these indicators are
not readily available. Many of the indicators listed above may even not be
available at all. The present list of indicators is prepared keeping in view
the monitoring aspect in mind and not whether the data is available or not. The
existing information system under the DPEP will need to be expanded to upper
primary level. The list of indicators
should be finalized in consultation with the manager MIS at the national level.
Total number of
Number (or percentage)
of habitations having Primary and Upper primary schooling facilities within a
distance of 1 and 3 km. This should be viewed in relation to the state norms
concerning distance and population size of the habitation.
Number of unserved
habitations over a period of time both with regard to availability of primary
and upper primary schooling facilities and also the non-formal education
centres, EGS and other type of alternative schooling facilities. (Percentage of
unserved habitations to total number of habitations in the district/block).
While monitoring the
progress on access, one should first see the targets, which are set on this
aspect. The number of new schools proposed in the plan should also be kept in
mind, which should be linked, to actual number of schools/centres opened.
(Percentage of new schools/centres opened with total number of schools/centres
proposed in the plan).
Percentage of rural
population served by primary and upper primary schooling facilities as per the
Trends in number of
schools, primary and upper primary over a period of time both at the district
and block/mandal/tehsil/taluka levels.
Number and percentage
of school buildings proposed, undertaken and actually constructed
Number and percentage
of additional classrooms proposed and constructed
Number of renovations
(of school buildings) proposed and actually undertaken
expenditure incurred on account of civil works (specifically buildings, additional
rooms, renovations etc.) to total expenditure incurred at district level
of out of school children (boys/girls/SC/ST/OBC/child labour/migratory
population, disable children) at the habitation/village/block/district levels
and its percentage to total number of children in an age group. This should be
calculated separately in different age groups, like 6-11, 9-14,11-14, 6-14 etc.
Similarly, out of school children according to single age population over time
should also be viewed.
age-specific population in different age groups separately at block and
district levels for the focus groups mentioned above
enrolment at primary and upper primary levels of education, separately at block
and district level
enrolment, specially Grade I over a period of time, separately for
boys/girls/SC/ST and OBC children
rate, separately for boys and girls both at block and district level
NER at block and district levels separately for different focus groups, such
as, girls. SC, ST and OBC children. This should be viewed in relation to the
targets that are set out on this aspect.
attendance rates both at the primary and upper primary levels of education
separately for boys/girls, SC, ST and OBC children.
primary school graduates over a period of time
of amount spent on enrolment drives with that of proposed budget on this aspect
rates both at the primary and upper primary level of education, separately for
boys and girls and also at block and district levels. This should be viewed in
relation to the targets set on this aspect.
promotion, drop out and repetition rates, separately for boys and girls (along
with number of repeaters and drop outs in different grades).
and District specific graduation (completion) rates at the primary level,
separately for boys and girls.
rates from primary to upper primary and from upper primary to secondary levels
of education, separately for boys and girls.
of amount incurred on retention related activities (innovative projects etc.)
to total expenditure. See whether the research studies proposed are
undertaken/completed and results are used in setting out the priorities and