Education For All in India with Focus on Elementary Education: Current Status, Recent Initiatives And Future Prospects

Statistical Statements II

 

Table_12: Growth in School Enrolment

Table_13: Share of Girls Enrolment

Table14: Gross Enrolment Ratio

Table_15: Enrolment and Attendance Ratio

Table_16: Retention Rate

Table_17: Repetition Rates in Primary Grades

Table_18: Rates of Efficiency

Table_19: Transition Rates at the All India Level

Table_20: State-specific Transition Rates

Table_21: Out of School Children

Table_22: Likely Year of Achievement of UPE/UEE

 

 

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Table 12: Growth in School Enrolment

                                                                                                                                                   (In Million)

                                                   Primary                           Upper Primary

Year                             Boys     Girls       Total                    Boys     Girls     Total

1950-51                       13.8       5.4         19.2                      2.6        0.5         3.1

1960-61                       23.6     11.4         35.0                     5.1        1.6         6.7   

1970-71                       35.7     21.3         57.0                     9.4        3.9       13.3    

1980-81                       45.3     28.5         73.8                    13.9      6.8       20.7

1990-91                       57.0     40.4         97.4                    21.5    12.5       34.0

1998-99*                     62.7     48.2       110.9                    24.0    16.3       40.3  

Growth Rate (%)        1.2      2.2           1.6                       1.4      3.4          2.2

             * Provisional, Source  : MHRD (2000a). The author computed growth rates (1990-98).

 

Table 13 : Share of Girls Enrolment at the Primary and Upper  Primary    Levels of Education, All India : 1950-51 to 1998-99 (In Percentage)

                     Year                                                   Primary                                        Upper Primary                                             

1950-51                                                 28.13                                                 16.13

1960-61                                                 32.57                                                 24.32

1970-71                                                 37.37                                                 29.32

1980-81                                                 38.62                                                 32.85

1990-91                                                 41.48                                                 36.76

1998-99*                                            43.50                                                  40.50

             * Provisional, Source : MHRD (2000a).

 

                                                                                                  Table 14: Gross Enrolment Ratio, All India Level: 1950-51 to 1998-99

Year

Primary

Upper Primary

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

1950-51

60.6

24.8

20.6

4.6

1960-61

82.6

41.4

33.2

11.3

1970-71

95.5

60.5

46.5

20.8

1980-81

95.8

64.1

54.3

28.6

1990-91

114.0

85.5

76.6

47.0

1998-99*

100.9

82.9

65.3

49.1

                  * Provisional,  Source: MHRD (2000a).

                                                                                                                       Table 15: State-specific Enrolment and Attendance Ratio

 

RATIO, 1997-98

ATTENDANCE RATIO, 1995-96

PRIMARY

GROSS

NET

AGE-SPECIFIC

STATE

GER

NER

P

UP

P

UP

6-10

11-13

Andhra Pradesh

90

69

86

56

69

41

75

60

Arunachal Pradesh

97

69

90

65

69

29

65

82

Assam

109

98

91

73

98

43

73

80

Bihar

76

76

54

51

76

33

43

58

Goa

86

61

118

99

61

62

99

89

Gujarat

118

86

95

67

86

52

80

77

Haryana

84

73

106

86

73

52

83

87

Himachal Pradesh

90

68

118

97

68

54

91

94

J & K

67

55

88

81

55

53

69

82

Karnataka

113

89

87

61

89

50

75

70

Kerala

90

72

109

97

72

76

97

97

Madhya Pradesh

102

88

84

62

88

35

64

67

Maharashtra

113

84

106

80

84

55

88

85

Manipur

86

68

91

93

68

43

69

87

Megahalaya

93

50

111

86

50

25

69

94

Mizoram

114

73

102

108

73

39

71

88

Nagaland

94

59

105

107

59

40

71

85

Orissa

91

70

75

59

70

45

63

66

Punjab

82

71

100

86

71

59

85

86

Rajasthan

97

72

74

56

72

35

58

64

Sikkim

113

61

118

75

61

33

77

90

Tamil Nadu

109

85

98

80

85

61

91

74

Tripura

88

80

110

82

80

40

81

84

Uttar Pradesh

62

47

80

54

47

33

61

66

West Bengal

92

56

94

63

56

33

67

74

A & N Islands

87

64

108

116

64

73

94

94

Chandigarh

80

60

142

57

60

45

87

95

D & N Haveli

96

70

98

61

70

55

79

55

Daman & Diu

99

74

138

69

74

57

100

76

Delhi

89

68

107

93

68

70

84

95

Lakshadweep

105

73

138

96

73

69

97

98

Pondicherry

94

74

86

107

74

84

98

93

All India

90

71

85

65

71

43

69

72

 P : Primary, UP: Upper Primary, GER: Gross Enrolment Ratio and NER: Net Enrolment Ratio, Source: Thakur and Mehta (1999) and NSSO (1998).

 Table 16: Retention Rate at All India Level, 1964-65 to 1998-99 (Percentage)

Year                                        Class V                                  Class VIII

                                    Total                  Girls                     Total                           Girls

1964-65                        37.10                  32.00                         --                                  --

1974-75                        36.80                  33.30                     21.30                             16.30

1984-85                        50.38                  47.54                     35.65                             29.60

1990-91                        61.04                  56.41                     39.10                             34.87

1998-99*                     60.26               58.68               43.18                           39.91

            *  Provisional, Source:  Varghese and Mehta (1999a) and MHRD (2000a).

                                                                                                          Table 17: Repetition Rate in Primary Grades, 1993-94

 

GRADES

I

II

III

IV

V

Boys

7.6

5.5

7.3

5.8

5.9

Girls

7.9

5.8

7.3

5.8

5.9

Total

7.7

5.7

7.3

5.8

5.9

       Source: Thakur and Mehta (1999).

 

Table 18: Rates of Efficiency (1997-98)

State & UT

Input/Output Ratio

Years Input per Graduate

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Andhra Pradesh

0.68

0.63

0.68

7.3

7.9

7.6

Arunachal Pradesh

0.61

0.60

0.61

8.2

8.4

8.3

Assam

0.87

0.61

0.75

5.8

8.2

6.7

Bihar

0.60

0.51

0.57

8.3

9.8

8.8

Goa

0.99

0.94

0.96

5.1

5.3

5.2

Gujarat

0.68

0.70

0.69

7.4

7.1

7.3

Haryana

0.84

0.80

0.82

6.0

6.3

6.1

Himachal Pradesh

0.73

0.90

0.81

6.8

5.6

6.2

J & Kashmir

0.82

0.78

0.80

6.1

6.4

6.2

Karnataka

0.72

0.66

0.69

6.9

7.6

7.2

Kerala

1.00

1.00

1.00

4.7

4.8

4.7

Madhya Pradesh

0.91

0.80

0.86

5.5

6.2

5.8

Maharashtra

0.85

0.82

0.83

5.9

6.1

6

Manipur

0.97

0.98

0.97

5.2

5.1

5.1

Meghalaya

0.56

0.51

0.54

8.9

9.8

9.3

Mizoram

0.79

0.81

0.80

6.2

6.4

6.3

Nagaland

0.59

0.58

0.59

8.4

8.6

8.5

Orissa

0.67

0.61

0.64

7.5

8.2

7.8

Punjab

0.93

0.89

0.91

5.4

5.6

5.5

Rajasthan

0.81

0.67

0.76

6.2

7.5

6.6

Sikkim

0.59

0.50

0.54

8.5

10

9.2

Tamil Nadu

0.81

0.82

0.81

6.2

6.1

6.2

Tripura

0.65

0.68

0.66

7.7

7.4

7.6

Uttar Pradesh

0.37

0.24

0.32

13.4

21.2

15.7

West Bengal

0.41

0.29

0.35

12.2

17.3

14.3

A & N Islands

0.98

0.91

0.94

5.1

5.5

5.3

Chandigarh

        -

-

-

3.8

3.8

3.8

D & N Haveli

0.84

0.78

0.82

6

6.4

6.1

Daman & Diu

0.92

0.90

0.91

5.4

5.6

5.5

Delhi

       -

    -

-

4.5

3.8

4.1

Lakshadweep

0.82

0.92

0.87

6.1

5.4

5.8

Pondicherry

-

    -

-

4.6

4.5

4.5

INDIA

0.70

0.63

0.67

7.2

8.0

7.5

                                                                                                                                    Source:  Thakur and Mehta (1999).

 

      Table 19: Transition Rate (%), All India, 1970-71 to 1997-98

Year

Transition Rate 

 

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys/Girls Differential

1970-71

86.80

74.08

82.56

12.72

1975-76

87.99

78.34

84.58

9.65

1980-81

92.11

81.77

88.35

10.34

1985-86

90.79

82.01

87.45

8.78

1990-91

95.20

93.22

94.42

1.98

1991-92

87.00

83.00

85.00

4.00

1997-98*

89.00

91.00

86.00

(2.00)

                    * Provisional,   Source: Varghese and Mehta (1999a). For years 1991-92 & 1997-98 calculated     by the author.

 

Table 20: State-specific Transition Rates (Grade IV/V to V/VI)

 State & UT

 

1991-92

 

 

1997-98

 

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Andhra

85

79

82

95

93

89

Arunachal

76

73

75

85

83

91

Assam

102

87

96

88

88

92

Bihar

78

69

75

94

95

86

Goa

88

82

85

78

79

105

Gujarat

73

74

74

85

84

90

Haryana

78

68

74

72

77

109

Himachal

92

88

90

83

81

92

J&K

140

117

130

103

98

73

Karnataka

76

76

76

94

95

88

Kerala

96

96

96

96

95

102

M.P

81

64

75

91

91

99

Maharashtra

97

89

93

97

97

86

Manipur

89

86

88

76

78

104

Meghalaya

89

89

89

88

89

78

Mizoram

87

85

86

90

91

100

Nagaland

72

78

75

77

79

81

Orissa

83

87

84

96

96

100

Punjab

95

90

93

93

93

88

Rajasthan

98

86

95

97

96

92

Sikkim

56

56

56

84

84

103

Tamil Nadu

82

74

79

88

88

106

Tripura

78

73

76

73

75

73

Uttar Pradesh

91

74

85

92

92

67

West Bengal

102

116

109

67

77

46

A&N Islands

81

76

79

82

83

114

Chandigarh

124

121

122

112

110

84

D&N Haveli

57

64

59

85

77

102

Daman & Diu

75

78

76

90

95

107

Delhi

111

94

103

83

84

81

Lakshadweep

68

77

72

86

82

116

Pondicherry

102

99

101

95

95

87

                                                                                                                                        Source: Calculated by the author based on information given in MHRD publications.

 

      Table 21: Out-of-School Children (1998-99) and Requirement of

                Additional Enrolment in 2007-8 to Achieve UPE  (In thousand)

State

Out-of-School Children, 1998-99

Net Additional Enrolment (Classes I-V) Requirements, 2007-8

Total

Girls

Boys

Total

Girls

Boys

Andhra

2340

1252

1090

1129

727

406

Arunachal

24

15

9

63

40

23

Assam*

-

-

-

120

225

-104

Bihar*

2955

2477

478

2231

2432

-192

Goa

87

46

41

231

131

100

Gujarat

960

671

289

1039

789

247

Haryana

689

309

380

1100

502

597

Himachal

229

127

101

536

337

202

J&K

384

255

128

629

451

184

Karnataka

937

538

399

681

388

294

Kerala

918

461

456

1037

505

531

M.P*

-

-

-

1413

1230

167

Maharashtra

1662

860

802

2838

1465

1371

Manipur

76

47

30

187

118

71

Meghalaya

101

53

48

214

126

89

Mizoram

20

12

8

66

39

27

Nagaland

59

29

29

137

75

62

Orissa

1161

830

329

1155

888

268

Punjab

748

324

423

1142

486

656

Rajasthan

1754

1498

257

2465

2110

366

Sikkim

17

9

8

47

26

19

Tamil Nadu

957

499

458

311

178

134

Tripura*

-

-

-

95

85

9

U.P

11477

6566

4910

14264

8761

5548

West Bengal

4161

2220

1941

5211

2889

2312

A&N Islands

15

6

9

32

14

17

Chandigarh

50

22

28

113

54

59

D&N Haveli

3

3

0

12

8

3

Daman & Diu

3

2

1

13

8

5

Delhi

517

248

268

1477

788

689

Lakshadweep

2

1

1

4

3

2

Pondicherry

37

20

17

116

70

45

India

33063

20340

12726

40108

25949

13387

Note: * Either the enrolment data and projected population or estimates of    overage/underage children in these states are not reliable

Source: Computed by the author based on the information given in MHRD (2000a)

             and NCERT (1998).

 

Table 22: Likely Year of Achievement of Goals of   UPE/UEE

                                       (Based on Trend Analysis)

       State

Primary                                                        Middle       

 

                                                                 Boys  

        Girls                        Boys

Girls   

 

 

Andhra Pradesh

2004/05

**

**

*

  Bihar             *                * * *
Gujarat 1995/96 2006/07 2004/05 *
Haryana ** ** ** *
Karnataka 1996/97 1998/99 *** **
Kerala _ _ 1999/2000 1999/2000

Madhya Pradesh

2002/03

**

*

*

Maharashtra

2000/01

**

**

*

Orissa

2004/05

*

**

*

Punjab

***

2008/09

*

*

Rajasthan

**

*

**

*

Tamil Nadu++

Achieved

Achieved

1994/95

1997/98

Uttar Pradesh

2007/08

*

*

*

West Bengal

2000/01

2007/08

2008/09

2007/08

All India@

2004/05

2007/08

2007/08

*

                                                                                                                       

*             Not in sight

**           Sometime after the year 2008/09

***        Just after the year 2008/09

+            Estimates of over-age/under-age not available

++          Tamil Nadu perhaps is the only state which might have already achieved goal of UPE.

Note :   @ Disaggregated projections at the state level are supposed to produce more reliable projections than at the all-India level. Likely years are based on the refined enrolment ratios computed on the basis of 23.71 and 15.78 per cent grossness at primary and upper primary levels.  The projections are subject to change when more reliable state-specific estimates of overage and underage children are available. 

             Source:   Mehta, 1998.

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