Education For All in India with Focus on Elementary Education: Current Status, Recent Initiatives And Future Prospects

Statistical Statements I 

Table_1:Literacy Rates (7+ Population)

Table 2: Rural and Urban Distribution of Literacy Rates

Table 3: Adult Literacy Rate (15+ Population)

Table 4: Educational Pattern in States & UTs of India

Table_5: Number of Schools

Table_6: Indicators of Access

Table_7: Habitations Served by Schooling Facilities

Table_8: Population Served by Schooling Facilities

Table_9: Facilities in Primary Schools

Table_10: Growth in Number of Teachers

Table_11: Indicators Concerning to Teachers

Statements II

EFA Year 2000 Assessment


 

  

       Table 1: Literacy Rate (7+ Population): All India, 1991 and 1998

Year

Male

Female

Total

1991

64.13

39.29

52.21

1998*

73.00

50.00

62.00

                                                                            Source: * NSSO data. Reported in MHRD (2000d).

     Table 2: Rural and Urban Distribution of Literacy Rate: All

                  India, 1991 and 1998

Year

Rural

Urban

Total

1991

44.69

73.08

52.21

1998

56.00

80.00

62.00

                                                                           Source: Same as Table 1.

Table 3: Adult Literacy Rate (15+ Population): All India, 1991 and 1998

Year

Male

Female

Total

1991

61.89

34.09

48.54

1998*

70.00

43.00

57.00

                                                                        Source: *NSSO data reported in Thakur & Mehta (1999).

  Table 4: Educational Pattern in States & UTs of India

 

STAGE

State/UT

Primary

Middle

Secondary

Andhra Pradesh

I‑V

VI‑VII

VIII‑X

Assam

I‑IV

V‑VII

VIII‑X

Gujarat

I‑IV

V‑VII

VIII‑X

Goa

I‑IV

V‑VII

VIII‑X

Haryana

I‑IV

V‑VII

VIII‑X

Karnataka

I‑IV

V‑VII

VIII‑X

Kerala

I‑IV

V‑VII

VIII‑X

Maharashtra

I‑IV

V‑VII

VIII‑X

Meghalaya

I‑IV

V‑VIII

IX‑X

Mizoram

I‑IV

V‑VII

VIII‑X

Nagaland

I‑IV

V‑VIII

IX‑XII

D & N Haveli

I‑IV

V‑VII

VIII‑X

Lakshadweep

I‑IV

V‑VII

VIII‑X

           Note : All other States & UTs have Grades I‑V and VI‑VIII  corresponding to Primary

and Upper Primary levels of education.

Source :  Annual Report: 1994‑95, MHRD, New Delhi

 

 

             Table 5: Number of Schools, All India, 1950-51 to 1998-99

    

Number of Schools

Year

Primary

Upper Primary

Ratio of Primary to Upper Primary Schools

1950-51

209671

13596

15.4

1955-56

278135

21730

12.8

1960-61

330399

49663

6.7

1965-66

391064

75798

5.2

1970-71

408378

90621

4.5

1975-76

454270

106571

4.3

1980-81

494503

118555

4.2

1985-86

528872

134846

3.9

1990-91

560935

151456

3.7

1995-96

590421

171216

3.4

 1998-99*

626737

190166

3.3

Rate of Growth (%), 1990-98

 

1.40

 

2.89

 

-

                                                                        * Provisional,  Source: MHRD (2000a). The author calculates growth rates and ratios.

 

Table 6: Indicators of Access, All India: 1965 to 1993

Particulars

2nd Survey

1965

3rd Survey

1973

4th Survey

1978

5th Survey

1986

6th

Survey

1993

% of habitations having primary schools/sections  within 1 Km.

68.58

75.58

80.23

83.83

83.36

% of rural population served by primary schools/sections up to 1 Km.

86.33

90.34

92.82

94.45

93.76

% of habitations served by upper primary schools/sections within 3 Kms

55.50

56.85

69.97

74.00

76.15

% of rural population served by upper primary  schools/sections within 3 Km

68.24

68.80

78.83

83.98

85.00

                                                             Source: National Council of Educational Research & Training (different survey reports), New    Delhi.

            Table 7: Rural Habitations Having Population of 300/500 & More and Served by

Primary/Upper Primary Schools/Sections

 

 

States/UTs

PRIMARY

UPPER PRIMARY

Served within Habitation (%)

Served up to 1 km

(%)

Served within Habitation (%)

Served up to 3 km

(%)

 

1986-87

1993-94

1986-87

1993-94

1986-87

1993-94

1986-87

1993-94

Andhra Pradesh

92.74

91.86

97.70

97.51

26.60

29.09

75.97

74.45

Arunachal

80.31

83.03

87.80

90.69

38.01

48.09

56.46

73.22

Assam

78.38

65.80

92.71

89.02

23.01

23.31

84.65

88.00

Bihar

73.70

69.95

95.05

94.32

19.98

20.73

88.70

88.24

Goa

59.59

87.10

91.61

95.83

28.50

53.26

93.63

90.49

Gujarat

96.50

96.03

99.23

98.32

65.88

68.59

91.90

92.30

Haryana

94.02

91.04

98.81

97.17

40.98

44.43

89.36

89.17

Himachal Pradesh

64.12

62.35

89.41

87.68

34.17

34.02

90.19

92.41

J & K

83.90

84.97

94.06

93.75

40.36

39.35

92.38

90.76

Karnataka

92.89

92.08

97.36

97.15

49.12

54.54

87.65

89.11

Kerala

75.16

64.29

88.34

83.54

51.16

38.52

94.42

89.59

Madhya Pradesh

87.92

87.04

95.69

94.75

26.73

27.33

70.35

72.04

Maharashtra

93.12

91.47

98.37

96.22

50.98

54.10

85.22

84.25

Manipur

88.99

82.04

98.18

95.26

42.60

43.08

90.37

90.39

Megahalaya

89.34

83.39

95.79

94.01

41.12

42.52

78.85

81.46

Mizoram

97.79

93.92

98.28

95.27

89.64

86.09

92.43

89.47

Nagaland

98.59

88.79

99.58

93.36

39.03

43.24

64.56

70.13

Orissa

82.76

79.91

96.24

96.13

36.86

39.28

88.90

91.73

Punjab

96.26

89.90

99.58

99.17

33.20

31.50

90.87

86.71

Rajasthan

87.09

86.66

90.83

93.05

38.21

39.55

72.31

76.68

Sikkim

83.53

73.55

90.46

85.95

45.64

41.48

83.89

83.84

Tamil Nadu

80.15

70.53

95.44

99.43

25.55

25.79

82.26

85.55

Tripura

58.52

56.06

86.72

86.79

31.14

30.16

93.88

92.80

Uttar Pradesh

47.61

49.62

86.01

85.64

16.88

17.01

80.95

80.89

West Bengal

73.07

54.76

96.71

91.94

14.53

12.03

82.91

87.66

A & N Islands

72.51

70.53

88.30

81.16

50.48

51.85

82.86

82.96

Chandigarh

90.48

83.33

100.00

93.33

57.89

46.67

100.00

96.97

D & N Haveli

65.66

50.66

89.90

88.82

11.76

18.75

82.35

89.58

Daman & Diu

60.00

59.57

93.33

100.00

42.42

54.05

100.00

100.00

Delhi

95.48

67.72

100.00

88.19

43.81

41.67

97.42

98.75

Lakshadweep

100.00

76.92

100.00

100.00

100.00

69.23

100.00

100.00

Pondicherry

82.00

64.60

98.74

97.08

35.53

34.31

95.43

95.10

All India

77.03

73.24

93.72

93.03

29.78

30.33

82.94

87.91

                                                                     Source: Same as Table 6.

 

Table 8:  Rural Population Served by Schools/Sections, 1993-94

 

 

 

 

 

State & UT

Ratio of Primary to Upper Primary Schools

 

Primary Schools/

Sections

 

Upper Primary Schools/Sections

 

Within Habitation

Up to 1 km

Within Habitation

Up to 3 kms

 

1998-99

1993-94

1986-87

1993-94

1993-94

1986-87

1993-94

Andhra Pradesh

5.95

92.45

97.30

97.62

42.99

79.18

79.43

Arunachal

3.92

70.12

73.35

77.87

33.13

42.20

54.39

Assam

3.69

66.27

93.57

88.61

22.40

83.29

87.16

Bihar

3.90

77.19

95.86

95.51

27.13

88.30

88.33

Goa

10.63

91.77

90.60

97.01

63.94

91.80

92.87

Gujarat

 -

97.12

99.45

98.78

76.79

94.43

94.48

Haryana

5.74

94.47

99.37

98.47

64.70

93.12

93.26

Himachal 

6.50

45.07

76.64

75.97

17.33

76.04

78.22

J & K

3.38

82.68

90.70

92.37

38.41

85.99

86.78

Karnataka

 -

91.11

97.24

96.58

60.86

89.78

91.42

Kerala

2.28

76.67

94.39

89.68

50.54

96.22

91.84

M.P

4.11

84.67

92.92

93.55

31.36

69.58

72.60

Maharashtra

1.88

90.65

97.95

95.82

61.08

88.46

87.64

Manipur

4.08

82.26

97.39

94.12

37.25

80.19

82.24

Megahalaya

4.95

74.05

89.22

87.97

25.57

64.99

69.50

Mizoram

1.68

94.30

98.28

95.77

77.58

82.85

83.38

Nagaland

3.13

92.36

99.45

95.05

47.76

66.41

74.54

Orissa

3.49

76.10

92.83

93.74

34.21

83.35

87.88

Punjab

5.00

90.83

99.59

99.32

45.41

92.49

89.68

Rajasthan

2.37

85.39

92.90

92.55

46.96

77.00

79.00

Sikkim

3.82

65.59

83.11

83.44

26.38

76.20

79.01

Tamil Nadu

5.57

77.16

96.02

99.53

35.36

84.07

87.78

Tripura

4.99

55.43

84.12

85.00

24.92

86.31

85.89

Uttar Pradesh

4.57

60.50

88.07

88.60

21.69

81.88

82.09

West Bengal

18.2

61.22

97.38

93.07

14.16

82.79

87.51

A & N Islands

3.69

70.45

83.01

81.75

44.37

73.57

77.03

Chandigarh

1.41

89.86

99.67

96.07

47.15

100.0

99.30

D & N Haveli

2.67

40.05

85.19

86.83

10.07

65.33

76.05

Daman & Diu

2.41

72.25

94.78

99.22

63.67

99.44

100.00

Delhi

4.45

81.93

100.00

93.83

58.31

98.60

99.05

Lakshadweep

4.75

86.32

100.00

99.73

73.29

99.16

98.74

Pondicherry

3.33

74.75

99.02

97.68

43.73

96.48

95.76

All India

3.30

77.81

94.45

93.76

37.02

83.98

85.00

               Source: Same as Table 6 and MHRD (2000a).

         Table 9: Facilities in Primary Schools: 1993-94

 

School Management

Schools having Permanent Buildings (%)

Average Number of Instructional Rooms

Percentage of Schools Having

Drinking Water

Urinal

Urinal for Girls

Lavatory

Government

38.62

1.64

34.64

13.19

4.97

6.02

Local Body

53.42

1.84

47.80

16.70

6.10

9.06

Private Aided

3.16

1.76

65.96

49.88

32.26

31.53

Private Unaided

4.80

1.84

87.15

78.48

56.53

64.95

All Schools

65.01

1.74

44.23

18.93

8.66

10.86

          Source: Sixth All India Educational Survey: 1993-94, NCERT, 1998, New Delhi.

                  Table 10: Growth in Number of Teachers, All India: 1950-51 to 1998-99

                                                                                                  (In '000)

Year

Primary Level

Upper Primary Level

Total

Female

Total

Female

1950-51

538

15.24

86

15.12

1960-61

742

17.12

345

24.06

1970-71

1060

21.23

638

27.43

1980-81

1363

25.09

851

29.73

1990-91

1616

29.27

1073

33.18

1998-99*

1904

34.56

1278

36.31

Growth Rate (%), 1990-98

2.07

4.21

2.21

3.37

                                                        * Provisional.

                      Source: MHRD (2000a). The author computes growth rates.     

        

             Table 11: Indicators Concerning to Teachers, 1998-99

 

 

State & UT

 

Pupil-Teacher Ratio

% of Female Teachers

Average Number of Teachers, 1993-94

Primary

Upper

Primary

Primary

Upper

Primary

Primary

Upper

Primary

Andhra Pradesh

46

39

34.09

42.53

2.2

5.8

Arunachal Pradesh

38

28

25.74

26.22

2.2

6.7

Assam

35

22

27.88

16.79

2.4

6.5

Bihar

63

49

19.19

22.81

2.1

7.3

Goa

21

17

69.18

68.85

2.8

7.4

Gujarat

51

42

49.80

48.96

2.3

7.5

Haryana

46

24

50.13

34.04

3.3

8.6

Himachal  Pradesh

30

19

39.93

23.47

3.0

5.7

J & K

30

22

37.20

37.77

1.9

7.2

Karnataka

32

49

43.62

46.17

2.0

5.6

Kerala

29

29

70.73

66.46

7.6

18.3

Madhya Pradesh

44

33

28.93

29.80

2.5

5.4

Maharashtra

36

39

50.26

40.00

3.3

8.1

Manipur

19

20

34.57

35.36

3.5

10.2

Megahalaya

39

17

46.98

39.58

2.1

4.8

Mizoram

24

11

48.73

25.52

3.9

6.5

Nagaland

20

18

40.81

41.20

4.9

10.6

Orissa

37

34

24.77

14.71

2.4

3.9

Punjab

42

17

62.59

51.30

3.5

5.9

Rajasthan

44

36

30.66

25.79

2.7

7.8

Sikkim

18

19

45.46

36.51

5.1

13.3

Tamil Nadu

39

40

41.45

48.25

3.8

11.1

Tripura

21

16

22.90

22.35

4.5

12.3

Uttar Pradesh

42

30

25.27

22.44

3.5

5.3

West Bengal

52

36

23.20

26.64

3.3

6.4

A & N Islands

20

21

47.27

53.29

4.0

16.4

Chandigarh

26

22

92.31

89.07

9.4

14.7

D & N Haveli

45

46

32.26

57.05

1.6

9.7

Daman & Diu

49

38

60.23

37.57

6.6

7.6

Delhi

38

29

63.59

65.15

11.2

15.0

Lakshadweep

25

21

41.72

50.00

13.6

44.0

Pondicherry

26

24

60.90

52.44

5.3

13.9

All India

42

37

34.55

36.28

2.9

6.9

               Source: MHRD (2000a) and NCERT (1998).

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